via Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention from March 2016 Abstract from US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health
Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling.
Pesticides & Health from Tracking California
When humans come into contact with a significant amount of pesticides in a short period of time they may experience health symptoms that are obvious and immediately discernible. This is often referred to as an acute exposure. Short-term (acute) health effects may include nausea, skin irritations, wheezing or shortness of breath, and stomach pain, among other transient health effects. Severe cases of pesticide exposure can even result in death.
There are also health concerns associated with chronic exposures- repeated exposure to very low doses of pesticides over a longer period of time. There may be no immediate signs and symptoms that someone has been exposed to a low dose of pesticides, but such exposures may still be harmful to health. Long-term (chronic) health effects from pesticide exposure include cancer, neurological impacts, adverse reproductive outcomes, declines in cognitive function, and other long-lasting health effects.
More information on the health impacts of pesticides is available from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Quote below is from Environmental Working Group (EWG) Challenged State Agency’s Massive Use of Weed Killers https://www.ewg.org/release/big-win-public-health-calif-judge-blocks-pesticide-spraying-state-ag-department
California Department of Food and Agriculture has a decades-long history of evading disclosure of the human health and environmental impacts of its activities by granting itself repeated “emergency” exemptions from environmental laws.
Neonics are being used in the Ojai Valley to treat for the Asian Citrus Psyllid
Info on Neonics from NRDC
Maps below show pesticide use data for 2017, with two area in the East End of Ojai in the 75%+ percentile of statewide pesticides use for all pesticides. The data is from the Pesticide Use Mapping Tool https://trackingcalifornia.org/pesticides/pesticide-mapping-tool
For township area 56S04N22W05 located in the middle of Grand Ave, pesticide use for 2017 showed 8,371 lbs for 2,265 acres at a rate of 3.70 lbs/acre. Right below petroleum products, glyphosate (a carcinogen) was used to treat 610 acres and thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid) was used to treat 244 acres.
For township area 56S04N22W06, located in the middle of Grand Ave but closer to the City limits of Ojai, pesticide use for 2017 showed 9,449 lbs for 1,468 acres at a rate of 6.47 lbs/acre. Right below petroleum products, glyphosate (a carcinogen) was used to treat 153 acres and thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid) was used to treat 201 acres.
Univeristy of Calfironia, Divison of Ag and Natural Resources recommends the following treatments for the Asian Citrus Psyllid from https://ucanr.edu/sites/ACP/Grower_Options/Grower_Management/ACP_Effective_Insecticides/
See individual pesticide labels and the UC IPM guidelines for citrus for rate recommendations. Many insecticides are effective in killing psyllids, especially if they make direct contact.
Synthetic Insecticides known to be effective for ACP management. The broad spectrum insecticides have a much longer residual than the soft insecticides – often weeks to months. Of these insecticides, the neonicotinoids and pyrethroids have the greatest persistence and so the greatest effect on populations. Research is demonstrating that Actara (foliar thiamethoxam) is a particularly effective insecticide.
*Insecticides that affect primarily egg and nymph stages.Organic insecticides provide short-term reduction of ACP
Organic insecticides require direct contact with the insect body and so it is difficult to control the hard-to-reach nymphal stages of ACP with these products. The persistence of organic products is only hours-days (not weeks like the synthetics) and so they need to be applied frequently. Of the organic insecticides tested, Entrust shows the greatest efficacy and persistence. Treatment frequency: For each conventional insecticide application, apply two organic treatments 10-14 days apart.
Pesticides used in the Ojai Valley
1.) Thiamethoxam (Actara)
2.) Fenpropathrin (Danitol)
3.)BetaCyflithrin, Cyclohexanone, Naphthalene, Solvent Naphtha (petroleum), heavy aromatic (Brand Name: Baythroid XL).
4.) Basic copper sulfate (Brand name: Copper 53)
5.) Glyphosate, Isopropylamine Salt (Brand name: Round Up Powermax)
6.) Pyrethrins (Brand name: Pyganic Crop Protection)
PyGanic® Crop Protection EC 5.0 delivers consistent, reliable knockdown and controls some of the most-damaging and pervasive insects on your crops. Organically-compliant, PyGanic controls a broad-spectrum of insects on virtually every type of crop and requires no pre-harvest interval or restrictions on the number of applications that can be made per year.
PyGanic comes in easy-to-use gallon and quart containers that enable the grower flexibility at the time of application according to pest pressure.
PyGanic is compatible with IPM, farm safety and Worker Protection Standards (WPS) given its user friendly toxicity profile. It is ideal for Organic growers who need insecticide options for hard-to-control insects. PyGanic is made with botanically-derived active ingredients that have a high impact on pests.
7.) Spinosad A&D (Brand name: Entrust SC)
8.) Mineral Oil (Brand name: IAP Summer 415 Oil)
9.) Petroleum Oil, unclassified (Brand name: PHT 415 Supreme Spray Oil)
10.) Abamectin (Brand Names: Ag-Mek and Timectin)
Active ingredient: Abamectin
Pesticide type: growth regulator, insecticide, miticide, nematicide
Synonyms: avermectin; avermectin b
See example products below.
Potential Hazard1 to
|Honey bees3||People and Other Mammals|
Acute Toxicity to People and Other Mammals4
- Toxicity rating: Highly Toxic
Long-Term Toxicity to People and Other Mammals5
- On US EPA list: Not listed;
- On CA Proposition 65 list: Not listed
Water Quality Rating2
- Overall runoff risk rating: High
- Source: Pesticide Choice: Best Management Practice for Protecting Surface Water Quality in Agriculture. UC ANR Publication 8161.
Impact on Natural Enemies
- Overall toxicity rating: Low To High
- Specific impacts: predatory mites (Moderate), parasitoids (Moderate To High), general predators (Low)
Impact on Honey Bees3
- Toxicity category: I – Do not apply to blooming plants
Pests for which it is mentioned in Pest Notes
11.) Spinotoram ( Brand Name: Delegate)